Italian sculptor (b. 1511, Settignano, d. 1592, Firenze)

Florentine Mannerist architect and sculptor, strongly influenced by Michelangelo and by Sansovino, on whose Library in Venice he worked. His best-known works in Florence are the Ponte Sta Trinitá (1567-70), destroyed during the Second World War, but rebuilt, and his additions to the Pitti Palace (1558-70), including the rusticated courtyard.

In sculpture his chief work is the rather ponderous fountain (1560-75) in the Piazza della Signoria, Florence, with its marble Neptune and bronze Nymphs. Ammanati beat several sculptors, including Cellini and Giambologna, in a competition for this commission, but the work was not well received. In old age, influenced by Counter-Reformation piety, he wrote a recantation of his secular works (denouncing nude figures as lustful) and he is said to have destroyed some. He was married to Laura Battiferri, a poet who was the subject of a memorable portrait by Bronzino.

Austrian painter (b. 1803, Wien, d. 1887, Wien)

Austrian painter. He came from a family of craftsmen and studied (1815–24) at the Akademie der bildenden Künste, Vienna, where one of his teachers was the conservative history painter Hubert Maurer (1738–1818). From 1824 to 1826 he attended the Academy in Prague, where he was taught by Josef Bergler. In 1827 and 1828 Amerling stayed in London, and he met the portrait painter Sir Thomas Lawrence, whose work was to be a strong influence on Amerling’s painting during the next two decades. Amerling also travelled to Paris and Rome but was recalled to Vienna on an official commission to paint a life-size portrait of the emperor Francis I of Austria (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum). With this work, Amerling became the most sought-after portrait painter in Vienna, a position he was to retain for about 15 years. In addition, he was also a major painter of historic and genre pictures, and landscapes. He worked mostly for the arictocracy. He was the master of the Hungarian painter József Borsos.

German painter, Swabian school (b. ca. 1505, Augsburg, d. 1562, Augsburg)

Amberger was an Augsburg portrait painter whose works resemble those of Holbein, but with a strong Venetian influence, perhaps due to Paris Bordone, who may have visited Augsburg in 1540. There is a signed altarpiece of 1560 in St Anna, Augsburg, but the only signed portrait by him seems to be the Emperor Charles V (Berlin). There are works in Augsburg, Birmingham (Barber Institute), Glasgow, Munich, Philadelphia (Johnson), Toledo, Ohio, Vienna and York.

German painter (b. ca. 1480, Regensburg, d. 1538, Regensburg)

German painter and graphic artist working in Regensburg, of which town he was a citizen from 1505 onwards, the leading artist, the guiding spirit of the so-called Danube School. His training is unknown, but his early work was influenced by Cranach and Dürer's art too was known to him through the woodcuts and engravings. Mingled with these German impressions was a knowledge of the art of Mantegna, perhaps through the mediation of Michael Pacher. Yet in spite of these varied influences Altdorfer's style always remained personal. Most of his paintings are religious works, but he was one of the first artists to show an interest in landscape as an independent genre. He was the first European to paint forests, sunsets, and picturesque ruins, in which he represented man as part of nature, allied with trees, rocks, mountains, and clouds and often resembling them. In works such as the altar for St Florian near Linz (1518) or the Christ Taking Leave of His Mother (National Gallery, London) he achieved a wonderful unity of mood between action and landscape, and two pure landscape paintings (without any figures) by him are known (National Gallery, London, and Alte Pinakothek, Munich). His patrons included the emperor Maximilian and Louis X, Duke of Bavaria, for whom he painted the celebrated Battle of Issos (Alte Pinakothek, Munich, 1529), which formed part of a large series of famous battle-pieces from Classical antiquity. With its dazzling light effects, teeming figures, and brilliant colours, it is one of the finest examples of Altdorfer's rich imaginative powers. The fantastic element that pervaded his paintings was also prominent in his drawings, most of which were done with black and white lines on brown or blue-gray paper. His engravings and woodcuts, usually miniatures, were distinguished by their playful imaginativeness, the most important being 40 plates entitled The Fall and Redemption of Man. In 1530 he began using the new medium of etching to produce nine landscapes and a series of fanciful tankards intended as work models for goldsmiths. From 1526 until his death Altdorfer was employed as town architect of Regensburg. No architectural work by him is known, but his interest in architecture and his skill in handling intricate problems of perspective are demonstrated by his Birth of the Virgin (Alte Pinakothek, Munich).

Flemish painter (b. 1570, Bruxelles, d. 1626, Bruxelles)

Flemish painter. The earliest document referring to him is a receipt dated 26 May 1593 for the gilding and decoration of the Garnier family monument in Notre-Dame-du-Sablon in Brussels. The records of the Brussels painters' guild, which survive only from 1599 onwards, do not mention his admission as a master but show that he took on four apprentices between 1599 and 1625, the last being Pieter van der Borcht. In 1599–1600 he entered the service of Archduke Albert and Archduchess Isabella, who entrusted him with many important commissions. In 1603 and 1604 van Alsloot received two payments from them for the design and weaving of two-and-a-half laps of tapestry with grotesques. This has often been taken, erroneously, to indicate that he held a prominent place in the development of Brussels tapestry manufacturing.

Italian painter, Florentine school (b. 1474, Firenze, d. 1515, Firenze)

Florentine painter, trained by Cosimo Rosselli, in whose studio he met Fra Bartolomeo. The two went into partnership in 1508, but soon after this Albertinelli temporarily abandoned painting to become an innkeeper, saying (according to Vasari) that he was fed up with criticism and wanted a 'less difficult and more cheerful craft'. Vasari also says he was a 'restless man, a follower of Venus, and a good liver.' His paintings are elegant but rather insipid. His best work is the Visitation (1503) in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Italian painter, Sienese school (active 1310-1347 in Siena)

Florentine painter, trained by Cosimo Rosselli, in whose studio he met Fra Bartolomeo. The two went into partnership in 1508, but soon after this Albertinelli temporarily abandoned painting to become an innkeeper, saying (according to Vasari) that he was fed up with criticism and wanted a 'less difficult and more cheerful craft'. Vasari also says he was a 'restless man, a follower of Venus, and a good liver.' His paintings are elegant but rather insipid. His best work is the Visitation (1503) in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Dutch still-life painter from Delft. He was a good draughtsman and vivid colourist. He specialized in still-lifes, as did his uncle and teacher Evert van Aelst of Delft (1602–57), whose name survives only in inventories and who died in poverty. Willem’s earliest known work, a Still-life with Fruit (1642; destroyed in World War II), is likely to have been influenced by his uncle’s style. On 9 November 1643 he enrolled in the Delft painters’ guild and from 1645 to 1649 was in France. From 1649 to 1656 he worked in Florence as court painter to Ferdinando II de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. van Aelst returned to the Netherlands in 1656 — first briefly to Delft before settling in Amsterdam in 1657. Van Aelst’s usual signature on paintings, Guill[er]mo van Aelst, recalls his stay in Italy, as does the (occasional) use of his bent-name ‘Vogelverschrikker’ (scarecrow), which appears, for example, on a Still-life with Poultry (1658; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam). Aelst's still-lifes are distinguishable from those of other Dutch painters, being frequently littered with bric-á-brac of Renaissance antiquarianism.

Italian painter (b. 1509, Modena, d. 1571, Fontainebleau) Painter of the Bolognese school who, along with others, introduced the post-Renaissance Italian style of painting known as Mannerism to France and helped to inspire the French classical school of landscape painting. During his stay in Bologna (1548-52), his style matured, influenced by his contemporaries Correggio and Parmigiano. His stucco-surface landscapes in the Poggi (now Palazzo dell'Università) survive to show his understanding of nature. Among his later paintings executed for Charles IX were a series of landscapes with mythologies that influenced many 17th-century French painters He also designed a series of tapestries, "Les Mois arabesques," and some of his designs were adopted by the painted enamel industry of Limoges. His last works are believed to be 16 murals (1571) in which he was assisted by his son, Giulio Camillo. His work in France is recognized as a principal contribution to the first significant, wholly secular movement in French painting, the Fontainebleau style.

Italian painter (b. 1509, Modena, d. 1571, Fontainebleau)

The Rape of Proserpine
Oil on canvas
Musée du Louvre, Paris Painter of the Bolognese school who, along with others, introduced the post-Renaissance Italian style of painting known as Mannerism to France and helped to inspire the French classical school of landscape painting. During his stay in Bologna (1548-52), his style matured, influenced by his contemporaries Correggio and Parmigiano. His stucco-surface landscapes in the Poggi (now Palazzo dell'Università) survive to show his understanding of nature. Among his later paintings executed for Charles IX were a series of landscapes with mythologies that influenced many 17th-century French painters He also designed a series of tapestries, "Les Mois arabesques," and some of his designs were adopted by the painted enamel industry of Limoges. His last works are believed to be 16 murals (1571) in which he was assisted by his son, Giulio Camillo. His work in France is recognized as a principal contribution to the first significant, wholly secular movement in French painting, the Fontainebleau style.

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Pause For Thought

Warhol on Critics

"Don't pay any attention to what they write about you. Just measure it in inches."